Lumped element-based electroacoustic models have been used to analyze microphones in the past. The low frequency response of a pure pressure gradient microphone has been presented in an analytical form. In essence, this has served the professional audio community with our present understanding of -proximity effect-. In contrast, this paper will provide insight into how -proximity effect- manifests in general directional microphones (i.e. combination pressure/pressure-gradient microphones). This characteristic will be demonstrated through the presentation of simple model transfer functions in order to gain insight and quantify directional microphone behavior as a function of simple excitation sources.
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