The "pin 1 problem" identified by Muncy has been with us since the shift to the design of cost-effective audio processing equipment on printed-circuit boards. This design and manufacturing methodology and technology, however, also is the root cause of more than one type of system interference problems, including common impedance coupling and susceptibility to radio-frequency interference. Various test and measurement techniques are presented using the automated test features of the Audio Precision System One for both the engineering design and the verification of the manufacturing integrity. High-speed automated testing necessary to ensure a high level of product quality on the manufacturing floor is also described.
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