Nonlinearities in horn loudspeakers are modeled by electromechanical-acoustical analogous circuits with lumped parameters as well as by block-oriented systems composed of linear dynamic subsystems and nonlinear static subsystems. The nonlinear parameters are developed by a power series expansion, and the second- and third-order system functions based on a Volterra series approach are presented. These higher order system functions allow a quantitative prediction of the harmonic and intermodulation distortion in the radiated sound pressure signal and show in principle the characteristic steady-state response of the nonlinear distortion for each nonlinearity. This information is helpful for interpreting the results of nonlinear distortion measurements and determining the dominant nonlinearities in horn loudspeakers. The structure of the derived system models is valuable a priori information for performing system identification to verify the modeling and to determine relevant loudspeaker parameters.
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