A vector-based reformulation of amplitude panning is derived, which leads to simple and computationally efficient equations for virtual sound source positioning. Using the method, vector base amplitude panning (VBAP), it is possible to create two- or three-dimensional sound fields where any number of loudspeakers can be placed arbitrarily. The method produces virtual sound sources that are as sharp as is possible with current loudspeaker configuration and amplotude panning methods. A digital tool that implements two- and three-dimensional VBAP with eight inputs and outputs has been realized.
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