The relevant nonlinearities in horn loudspeakers are modeled by electro-mechano-acoustical equivalent circuits with lumped parameters, as well as block-oriented system models comprising linear dynamic subsystems and nonlinear static subsystems. The nonlinear parameters are developed by a power series expansion and the second- and third-order system functions based on the Volterra-series approach are presented. These higher-order system functions allow the prediction of the harmonic and intermodulation distortion in the radiated sound pressure signal quantitatively and show the characteristic steady-state response of the nonlinear distortions for every nonlinearity in principle. This information is helpful for interpreting the results of nonlinear distortion measurements and allows localizing dominant nonlinearities in horn loudspeakers. The structure of the derived system models is valuable a priori information for performing system identification to verify the modeling and to determine the relevant loudspeaker parameters.
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