This paper outlines techniques for the control of the directivity of a loudspeaker system by suitable size, spacing, and choice of crossover frequencies. Loudspeakers with a smoothly varying directivity index have been shown to rate well in listening tests, assuming a competent design to obtain a smooth, flat, on-axis response. The paper uses modeling and simulation techniques to analyze and show polar responses and the directivity indexes of a selected range of system configurations in free-field conditions. It proposes a physical layout to approximate listening conditions in a room, and models the polar responses and the directivity indexes of the same systems in these conditions. The paper draws conclusions about the size and placement of loudspeaker systems.
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