A differential Volterra series representation is used to compare the nonlinear performance of similar audio systems that differ due to system intolerances or minor design variations. In contrast with single or multi-function sinusoidal detection tests, the Volterra series represents a frequency dependent nonlinear model that predicts the performance of a DUT for arbitrary signals. Direct system comparison is performed in the frequency domain transformed from the Volterra model. The technique is demonstrated for second and third-order nonlinearities using measurement data derived from two moving-coil loudspeakers with subtle design variations.
This paper costs $33 for non-members and is free for AES members and E-Library subscribers.