The lumped-parameter stiffness and the force factor B1 of electrodynamic loudspeakers are changed by the displacement of the voice coil and produce as the most dominant nonlinearities substantial distortion components as well as affecting the vibration and transfer characteristics of the excited fundamentals. By modeling the nonlinear system under large-signal conditions the phase and amplitude responses of the fundamentals, the behavior of the harmonic and intermodulation components, and the magnitude of the resulting direct displacement can be calculated using linear and nonlinear parameters determined by static or dynamic measurements. This modeling can reveal some nonlinear effects observed for large-signal drives: changes in amplitude and phase response, compression of harmonic and intermodulation products, dc components in the displacement, unstable states of vibration, and jumping effects.
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