Microphone arrays have directional capabilities which allow them to extract coherent components from sound fields while dispersing (smearing) incoherent components depending on the direction of sound incidence. Detailed measurements of a number of mono and stereo arrays are presented emphasizing their on-axis and off-axis performance. Mono arrays can be considered as elements of stereo arrays and their stereo performance can be predicted for various sound fields from mono measurements. Optimizing the use of mono and stereo arrays can lead to excellent results in recording particularly in situations where the directivity of single microphones is unsufficient. Arrays can also be used to synthesize microphones with improved characteristics.
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