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Theory and Practice of Wide-Bandwidth Toroidal Output Transformers

The frequency range and time behavior of output transformers, used in tube amplifiers, are determined by the transformer parameters and the impedances of the source and the load. A general theory is discussed on how to calculate the frequency range and time behavior of output transformers in conjunction with output tubes and loads. A new frequency decade factor is introduced and compared to the well-known transformer quality factor, taking the influences of difference source and load impedances into account. A new toroidal output transformer with a -3 dB bandwidth from 0.3 Hz to 250 Hz is discussed.

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