The frequency range and time behavior of output transformers, used in tube amplifiers, are determined by the transformer parameters and the impedances of the source and the load. A general theory is discussed on how to calculate the frequency range and time behavior of output transformers in conjunction with output tubes and loads. A new frequency decade factor is introduced and compared to the well-known transformer quality factor, taking the influences of difference source and load impedances into account. A new toroidal output transformer with a -3 dB bandwidth from 0.3 Hz to 250 Hz is discussed.
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