This paper concentrates on the implementation of recursive filters using fixed-point 2's-complement arithmetic for high-fidelity audio. It is now widely accepted that 16/32-bit DSP chips are inadequate for many audio applications. The engineer new to the design and realization of recursive filters may believe that the straightforward use of 24/48 (+overflow)-bit DSP chips will ensure sufficient quality for audio applications. Unfortunately this is not always the case. Filter topologies based on direct form I are recommended for audio. Many filter designs require the use of error-feedback schemes to reduce noise to an acceptable level. Some extremely critical frequency-response designs require the use of double-precision coefficients. Sometimes it is appropriate to use other filter topologies to reduce the noise floor or allow the implementation of extremely critical frequency response designs.
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