Methods of digital-to-analogue conversion are reviewed with a bias towards multi-bit and bitstream conversion. Sources of error are identified and a number of conversion techniques presented. Included are basic architectures for multi-bit systems and the use of oversampling and noise shaping. This progression leads to a discussion of the delta-sigma converter with open-loop variants using code conversion. Finally, the methods are contrasted against the PWM converter as an alternative means of generating a binary coded data sequence that can simplify the digital-analogue gateway. Consideration is also given to analogue factors that affect resolution.
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