XY and MS microphone techniques can be considered theoretically equivalent, that is, both signal formats can be transformed into each other, assuming ideal microphone characteristics. In practice, however, specific differences may arise between the two systems. The theoretical relationships are derived with regard to first-order directional microphones, and the individual properties of both techniques are described in detail. Furthermore, it is shown that the MS technique is less prone to the imperfections of real microphones than the XY technique.
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