A detailed description is given of the procedures of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to determine whether an investigative or other forensic tape is an original or a duplicate, and whether there have been any alternations to the recording. Information is provided on contributor submitted material, the playback of recordings, an analysis overview, critical listening, physical inspection, magnetic development, instrumental analyses (waveform, narrow-band spectrum, and spectrographic), miscellaneous techniques, examination examples, training of examiners, evidence handling, and testimony.
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