A new type of transducer material, electrothermomechanical film (ETMF), consisting of foamized plastic film with conductive electrodes on at least one of its surfaces, is introduced, and its properties are examined, especially with regard to audio applications. Applications as both a transmitter and a receiver with either electrostatic or electrodynamic drive are introduced, and the special properties of the transducers made of the film are examined. A lumped-component model for the film is developed, and it is used to predict the behavior of the film. The predicted results are compared against measured data.
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