A new type of transducer material, electro-thermo-mechanical film (ETMF), consisting of foamized plastic film with conductive electrodes on at least one of its surfaces, is introduced, and its properties in especially audio applications are examined. Applications both as a transmitter and receiver with either electrostatic or electrodynamic drive are introduced, and the special properties of the transducers made of the film are examined. A lumped-component model for the film is developed, and it is used to predict the behavior of the film. The predicted results are compared against measured data.
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