Loudspeakers used for monitoring purposes in broadcasting and recording studios are designed to give the nearest practicable approach to realistic reproduction. The paper discusses the various criteria which can be applied to the performance of such loudspeakers, together with the relationship between the measured free-field characteristics and the response as subjectively assessed in the working environment. While the degree of realism achieved in sound reproduction can only be judged aurally, even subjective assessments can be misleading unless carried out under controlled conditions and with clearly defined terms of reference; the precautions necessary in such tests are discussed. Some of the less obvious design considerations are reviewed and illustrated by examples.
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