The lumped parameters stiffness, force factor B1 of electrodynamical loudspeakers are changed by the displacement of the voice coil and produce as the most dominant nonlinearities substantial distortion components as well as affect the vibration and transfer characteristics of the excited fundamentals. By modeling the nonlinear system under large-signal conditions the phase and amplitude responses of the fundamentals and of the harmonic and intermodulation components and the magnitude of the resulting direct-displacement can be calculated using linear and nonlinear parameters determined by statical or dynamical measurements. This modeling can declare some nonlinear effects observed in large-signal drive (changes in amplitude and phase response, compression of the harmonic and intermodulation products, direct component in the displacement, instable vibration states and jumping effects).
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