Stereo surround sound television present the microphone operator with a number of challenges. The sound must have an obvious spatial character and it must lend stable support to the visual image within the reproduction environment; it must support the picture equally well for a number of viewers' positions displaced from the -stereo- seat. The microphone technique used must provide useful spatial information that complements the visual image and does not confuse the viewer with perceptual contradictions; the sound must respect the rules of perceptual constancy. The techniques used must allow for maximum flexibility and adjustability of spatial aspects of sound during recording and post-production. Also, microphone pickup has to be effective without compromising the positional flexibility of the camera. This paper reviews microphone techniques which effectively provide spatial sound control in various types of audio recording, and propose a set of techniques particularly useful to television. Mono techniques will likely remain the most essential tools in the television toolbox, however, with supplementary microphone techniques derived from stereo.
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