The spectra and the maximum output levels for accurately reproducing low-frequency musical signals are determined from published research and new measurements. Analysis of commercial recordings shows substantial musical information in the octave from 32 to 16 Hz and some down to 12 Hz. Psychoacoustic data are used to establish to what degree errors (such as total harmonic distortion, FM distortion, modulation noise, and bandwidth limits) are perceptible. Criteria are set for proper subwoofer performance at peak sound pressure levels of 110 dB.
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