The acoustic impedance concept has been used to interpret the behavior and performance of sound sources in rooms at low frequencies. Acoustic transfer impedance (ATIM) and acoustic load impedance (ALIM) are recommended for describing the acoustic properties of rooms and enclosures below the Schroeder frequency. In addition, the acoustic transfer (complex) inertance (ATIN) and the acoustic load (complex) inertance (ALIN) are proposed as useful low-frequency characteristics of listening rooms.: Methods of measuring ATIM and ALIM (or ATIN and ALIN) are discussed, and several results are presented. A numeric impedance model of the rectangular enclosure with sound-absorbing walls is explained briefly, and a computing routine is used in the computer simulation of a low-frequency loudspeaker in a rectangular listening room. Measurements and simulations illustrate and correct some traditional misinterpretations of low-frequency performance of sound sources in rooms.
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