An electrodynamic loudspeaker is often assumed to be a linear system. However, actual loudspeakers show small nonlinearities that give rise to distortion components in its response. An overview of possible nonlinearities in a practical electrodynamic loudspeaker is given in this paper. : The paper also presents a model of the nonlinear loudspeaker behavior, which can be used to predict the low-frequency distortion of a loudspeaker.
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