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Fundamentals of Pitch-Shifting

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"Sampling" keyboards use digital pitch-shifting to generate a full spectrum of notes from a smaller number of recorded samples. This process is related by a time dilation to the more familiar operation of sample-rate conversion and both depend fundamentally on interpolation. A particular example is treated in a tutorial manner, and in the process the fundamental relations of sampling and reconstruction are illuminated. Special attention is given to some of the tradeoffs and pitfalls involved.

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AES - Audio Engineering Society