Dynamic methods for controlling the dynamic range of digitally coded audio signals are described. Block diagram representations are given for the realization of both static and dynamic characteristics of a dynamic range controller. The methods for calculating the coefficients that represent the controlling parameters are derived, and the effect of restricting the accuracy of the processing by the use of fixed-wordlength arithmetic is examined. One form of distortion introduced because of this restricted accuracy processing can be described as "zipper" noise. It was successfully removed by adaptive smoothing of the gain-control signal. The techniques were verified using a high-speed audio signal processor, thereby confirming that practical real-time digital dynamic range control is feasible.
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