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Frequency-Modulation Distortion in Loudspeakers (Reprint)

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As the frequency-response range of a sound-reproducing system is extended, the necessity for minimizing all forms of distortion is correspondingly increased. The part which the loudspeaker can contribute to the overall distortion of a reproducing system has been frequently considered. A type of loudspeaker distortion which has not received general consideration is described. This distortion is a result of the Doppler-effect and produces frequency modulation in loudspeakers reproducing complex tones. Equations for this type of distortion are given. Measurements which confirm the calculated distortion in several loudspeakers are shown. An appendix giving the derivation of the equations is included.

JAES Volume 29 Issue 5 pp. 320-326; May 1981
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AES - Audio Engineering Society