The effects of the diaphragm shape of a loudspeaker on the radiation characteristics are discussed using convex and concave domes in an infinite baffle. The results show that these characteristics are highly dependent on the shape of the diaphragm, even if it vibrates like a piston. The concave dome has a wide peak due to the cavity resonance resulting in higher radiation efficiency. The convex dome has lower on-axis pressure response in the same region due to the dispersion of energy to the off-axis direction. The diffraction of sound from a concentric ring source by the convex and concave domes is also investigated in order to discuss the interaction between the loudspeaker units of a complete system. The radiation and diffraction phenomena are well explained by the use of a graphic representation of the energy flow and pressure distributions.
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