Amplitude response curves taken at a number of points placed symmetrically around a loudspeaker system are used to produce a three-dimensional energy surface in any selected plane. The information provides essential insight into loudspeaker directivity problems of both individual drive units and complete systems. Using this technique the relative effective locations of acoustic centers of units can be deduced, allowing prediction of drive unit plus crossover polar response anomalies, separated from both drive unit and crossover effects.
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