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On the Magnitude and Audibility of FM Distortion in Loudspeakers

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Beers and Belar, in their 1943 paper on Doppler effect in loudspeakers, recognized and pointed out limitations in the scope of their analysis. They also suggested simple methods for keeping FM distortion products below the level of audibility, such as dividing the spectrum among at least two drivers. Recent work is described which extends Beers and Belar's analysis along lines they suggested, and which, by means of double-blind listening tests, provides confirming evidence that Doppler distribution in practical multidriver systems is indeed inaudible.

JAES Volume 30 Issue 10 pp. 694-700; October 1982
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AES - Audio Engineering Society