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An Experimental Study of distortion

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There has been an unfortunate tendency to accept mathematical theories without adequate laboratory test of their practical applicability. This prompted an experimental study of the relation between intermodulation and harmonic distortion in various single amplifier stages and in a complete push-pull amplifier. The results indicate that the ratio of percentage intermodulation distortion to percentage harmonic distortion may vary between less than 0.2 and over 10. Accordingly, the widely published predictions of a ratio between 3.2 and 3.8 are shown to be often incorrect, probably because of the inadequate scope of the mathematical treatment.

JAES Volume 2 Issue 4 pp. 215-218; October 1954
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AES - Audio Engineering Society