The quality of all digital audio systems is limited by those degradations introduced in the analog function of conversion to and from the digital domain. Anti-aliasing and anti-image filters are a difficult technology when the specifications correspond to 16-bit conversion systems. The various theoretical and practical limitations of the different filter structures will be reviewed with reference to internal distortion, passband ripple, stopband attenuation, and phase nonlinearity. The different classes of filters are: biquadratic cascade, and ladder structures with either passive or active components. Some of the newer theory results will be presented.: Analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog technology has made significant advances during the last decade. There are now several different classes of converters in the analog-to-digital family: flash, successive approximation, successive approximation by residual expansion, and dual slope count algorithms. Some manufacturers are now using self-calibration modes internally. Because almost none of the so-called 16-bit converters will achieve 95 dB signal-to-noise ratio, it is important to understand the nature of device limitations.
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