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Loudness Compensation: Use and Abuse

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A listening survey of conventional loudness controls led to the subjective impression that most of them overcompensate. The well-known Fletcher-Munson contours are examined as a basis for loudness compensation: more modern data are examined as well. Differential loudness contours from the most appropriate data are used to account for the fact that the ear's response is not flat at any chosen reference level. Computer-generated tables of the differential loudness contours are given along with several circuit implementations based on the new curves.

JAES Volume 26 Issue 7/8 pp. 526-536; August 1978
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AES - Audio Engineering Society