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Psophometric Noise Measurement on Audio Equipment

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Noise in audio equipment is something everybody knows, and constructors have through generations tried to optimize circuits, so that the noise level comes the closest possible to the theoretical obtainable. The essential source of noise in the audio amplifer is thermal noise, which is generated in all Ohmic resistors, even if the resistor is not applied any voltage. The noise arises in consequence of the electrons movements in the molecular structure, and is stimulated by heat in such a way that the noise power is proportionate with the absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin.

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AES - Audio Engineering Society