Gap-length response S(x) is approximated within 1% by S(x) = sin pi x/pi x, where x = 1.1 lg/lambda, lg = mechanical (optical) gap length, lambda = wavelength, and x < 0.5. Alternately, the gap length is calculated from the measured null frequency fn at the speed v; then lg = 0.8795 v/f. Gap-length response compensation is required by standards, but often neglected in practical professional reproducers. Compensation is easily achieved with an RLC -peaking- circuit.
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