In Fourier series analysis, the terms -D- and -C- are generally not considered as distortion components in musical reproduction, and the harmonics (2nd, 3rd, etc.) are measured as total harmonic distortion. These terms, however, should be considered independently, as audible distortion may result as they change the wave shapes over a period of time, which can cause adverse effects in the audible frequency range. This paper discusses the significance of this envelope distortion and shows new measurement techniques for determining and quantifying it. References to envelope distortion in the most recently developed DC amplifiers are made.
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