Usually, recorded music when listened to with headphones tends to create a sound image within the listener's head, making in-flight music less realistic to the listener. The authors manipulated the frequency response, time delay, and crosstalk of the source signals to simulate loudspeaker listening. Since this processing/encoding, based on the dummy-head technology, is accomplished during the tape duplication process at the factory, no modification of playback equipment in the aircraft is necessary. The system, first adopted by Japan Airlines, has been noted by passengers to sound more pleasant and realistic than that which they are accustomed to hearing with such headphones.
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