The theory of vented box and passive radiator loudspeaker systems developed by Dr. Small is applied to find that only moderate sized systems that must develop appreciable acoustic output need passive radiators. Systems with cabinet volume greater than 100 liters are better with vents. The comparison of losses in reflex loudspeaker systems is illustrated with measurements on both large and moderate size speakers. For controlling passive radiator Q as well as for providing adequate displacement volume, the passive radiator should have a larger area than the woofer.
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