Active filters have reached the point of maturity where they are attractive components for audio signal processing systems. The availability of the integrated circuit operational amplifier has proved to be very successful in this regard. However, to fully optimize the use of the active filter it is necessary to understand the effects of the non-ideal operational amplifier. The established active filter design methods are reviewed and the operational amplifier is characterized in order to show the influence of its parameters on the design of active filters. Design methods are developed which minimize the effects of the frequency-dependent operational amplifier on the active filter realization.
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