An extensive series of listening tests were conducted by Panel 6 of the National Quadraphonic Radio Committee (NQRC) to compare sound reproduction by 4-4-4, 4-3-4, and 4-2-4 quadraphonic encode/decode systems. Localization judgments of both real and phantom sources, using both simple and complex sounds, were made by a large number of auditors in normal listening-room environments. Rank ordering of these quadraphonic systems is made in terms of the ability of auditors to localize the sound sources.
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