Various transducers such as stereophonic headphones, tweeters, microphones, and phonograph cartridges have been developed with very thin piezoelectric high polymer films. These transducers have quite simple structures because the diaphragms are piezoelectric films and involve transducing function in themselves. The high polymer element is a poly(vinylidene fluoride) in film form that ranges from 8 µ m thickness for headphones to 30 µ m for tweeters and microphones.
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