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Overcoming Record Warps and Low-Frequency Turntable Rumble in Phonographs

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Certain classes of warped records cannot be tracked by ordinary tone arms, and even those with elaborate vibration dampeners or viscous damping often result in stylus displacements which seriously affect the sound quality. By detecting and controlling the absolute stylus force, many of the bothersome low-frequency turntable problems can be solved. A stylus force regulator system employing feedback control is described.

JAES Volume 23 Issue 6 pp. 450-458; August 1975
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AES - Audio Engineering Society