One of the major problems of applying diagnostic ultrasound to cardiac diagnosis has been the absence of objective anatomic correlates to the various recordable, but not always reproducable, echo waveforms. It has been feasible to place artificial structures at identifiable intracardiac locations and detect them by echo cardiography. Utilizing this method, we have achieved a three-dimensional array of landmarks within the human heart. The result of this study will provide a library of precise characteristic patterns for nonevasive echocardiagraphic diagnoses of cardiac patients.
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