The excitation of the sub-audio frequency head mass/cartridge compliance resonance by record warps, may adversely affect reproduction in the audio range in a number of ways: 1) A short-term cyclic increase and decrease in tracking force, which may result in poor tracing performance, mistracking, and in extreme cases, groove jumping; 2) audible intermodulation products, arising from nonlinearity of some parts of the system subjected to large sub-audio amplitudes; 3) short-term variations in side thrust on pivoted arms, arising from (1); 4) short-term vertical tracking angle errors; and 5) audible stylus warp-wow. In addition to the above, excitation of the resonance by mechanical shocks may results in mistracking or groove jumping. All the effects discussed can be brought down to acceptable values by judicious application of damping to the system.
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