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Mismatch Between Power Amplifiers and Loudspeaker Loads

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Audio power amplifiers are usually designed to deliver rated power at low distortion into a fixed resistive load. Loudspeakers present to the amplifier a frequency-dependent impedance which is usually not a resistance equal to the nominal impedance of the loudspeaker. The volt-ampere characteristics of amplifiers under impedance mismatch conditions are illustrated. The effects of negative voltage and current feedback are shown as they affect the distortion of the amplifier while operating into other than rated load impedance.

JAES Volume 6 Issue 4 pp. 220-224; October 1958
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AES - Audio Engineering Society