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Stethoscope Acoustics and the Engineer: Concepts and Problems

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An acoustical test system was specifically designed to evaluate stethoscopes under conditions which are applicable to the clinical situation in which they are used. This entailed the incorporation of acoustical analogues for human ears and the human chestwall into the test apparatus. The response curves of many differing stethoscopes fell into only four basic patterns and these correlated with critical features of stethoscope design. Performance discrepancies were found to be considerable among the stethoscopes tested.

JAES Volume 19 Issue 3 pp. 182-186; March 1971
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AES - Audio Engineering Society