The audio signal which is transferred from modulated grooves to adjacent unmodulated grooves in a disc record is called the -echo.- The measured characteristics of the echo signal are described as a functioin of modulation level, modulation frequency, groove width, and cutting pitch (grooves per inch). It is shown that echo during the mastering process is produced by the modulation of the left (inner) groove walls and is transferred to the succeeding inner grooves.
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