The closed-box loudspeaker system is effectively a second-order (12 dB/octave cutoff) high-pass filter. Its low-frequency response is controlled by two fundamental system parameters: resonance frequency and total damping. Further analysis reveals that the system electroacoustic reference efficiency is quantitatively related to system resonance frequency, the portion of total damping contributed by electromagnetic coupling, and total system compliance; for air-suspension systems, efficiency therefore effectively depends on frequency response and enclosure size. System acoustic power capacity is found to be fundamentally dependent on frequency response and the volume of air that can be displaced by the driver diaphragm; it may also be limited by enclosure size. Measurement of voice-coil impedance and other mechanical properties provides basic parameter data from which the important low-frequency performance capabilities of a system may be evaluated.
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