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Synthesis of the Musical Scale Using Noninteger Frequency Divsion

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The method of noninteger frequency division may be applied to the synthesis of the musical scale, with consequent advantages of accurate pitch and good spectral properties. A set of noninteger dividers has been constructed from ripple-carry counters and exclusive-OR gates, which generate from a 1-MHz, source the semitones in the octave 4434-8372 Hz with a worst error in relative pitch of 0.4 cent. Lower octaves are obtained by further binary divisions, and digital circuitry for key shifting and vibrato is incorporated.

JAES Volume 21 Issue 4 pp. 262-266; May 1973
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AES - Audio Engineering Society