Variances in the parts and uncertainties in the assembling process degrade the performance and the reliability of the manufactured devices. Defective units increase the manufacturing cost if detected during end-of-line testing or increase the after-sales cost if an undetected failure occurs in the field. This paper addresses the role of end-of-line testing to reduce both kinds of failures and to maximize the performance/cost ratio as seen by the end-user. The selection of sensitive and fast measurements, which can be performed under manufacturing conditions, is the basis for the PASS/FAIL classification. The paper shows that optimal production limits used in EoL-testing minimize the overall cost by considering a clear product definition, information from the particular design, statistical data from manufacturing process and traceability of the field rejects. The general concept presented here is illustrated using practical examples from automotive and other applications.
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