Structural models of Head Related Transfer Functions attempt to decompose complex acoustic phenomena into constituent signal processing models. The work of Brown and Duda modeled the head with two elements: a pure delay estimated from a ray-tracing formula by Woodworth and a 1-pole 1-zero shadowing ?lter. The ray-tracing formula is valid for frequencies above ˜ 2kHz while interaural time delay (ITD) is perceptually signi?cant below ˜ 1.5kHz. The frequency-dependence of the phase-derived ITDp has been shown by many authors but is not accounted for by ray-tracing assumptions. As such, the shadowing ?lter must account for the low frequency variation in ITDp. Using a numerical approximation of Rayleigh’s solution as a reference, this paper evaluates and revises the work of Brown and Duda.
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