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In Situ Measurement and Equalization of Sound Reproduction Systems

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The concept of frequency response is of basic importance to audio reproduction equipment because of its strong influence upon subjective. When analyzing electronic equipment, this characteristic is seldom a problem of measurement or interpretation; it is however a genuine problem for acoustical transducers such as loudspeakers. Unlike electrical equipment which has both electrical input and output terminals, the loudspeaker has an electrical input terminal but an acoustical output terminal. This acoustical output terminal is further complicated by the fact that some form of room is always interposed between the loudspeaker and the acoustical measuring device. Having an acoustical output terminal with the human as the ultumate evaluation instrument, various measurement and interpretation questions arise regarding frequency response, variations among listeners, and effect of program material. It is the purpose of this paper to attempt to answer these questions in light of the various areas in which sound reproduction systems are used. The major areas to be considered are: 1. Sound reinforcement systems, 2. studio monitoring situations, 3. home high-fidelity systems.

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